What is the difference between polishing and
Buffing and polishing using wheels and compounds
is somewhat like using wet and dry sandpaper, only
much faster. Instead of using elbow grease, you use
the power and speed of an electric motor. The face
of the wheel is the "sanding block," which
carries a thin layer of compound (sandpaper) to the
The objective of buffing is to make a rough surface
smooth; however, every part does not have the same
finish and will need to be worked differently. Some
divide buffing into satin finishing; cut-down buffing
for preliminary smoothness; and cut-and-color buffing
for smoothness and luster.
Polishing is not a precision operation. It is used
to remove metal and produce fine-scale abrasion. Friction
generates high temperatures that can soften the surface
of the work piece. Polishing, which usually involves
several stages, precedes buffing.
Buffing and polishing may seem like simple operations.
You simply hold the work piece to the wheel until
it shines. But there is an art to it, and you need
to know the basics before you can make rough surfaces
smooth and dull surfaces shine.
What is Vapor Degreasing?
Solvent vapor degreasing is a parts cleaning process
that has been used in many applications for some years.
Virtually every communications or electronics system
and aircraft flying today has components that have
been vapor degreased. Also, surgical tools and medical
implants often are cleaned using solvent vapor degreasing.
In fact, solvent vapor degreasing is almost limitless
in its possible uses. Solvents are effective cleaners
because of their ability to dissolve grease and oil.
Therefore, they remove contaminants more easily than
other cleaning methods.
What is the difference between Sulfuric Type
II Anodizing and Hard Coat Type III Anodizing?
Hard Anodizing or Hardcoat Anodize produces an oxide
coating that is typically thicker and denser than
sulfuric acid anodize. Because of the film's density,
it produces a hardness of 60 to 65 Rockwell on the
C scale. The color of this film varies from light
gray to dark olive gray depending on the material's
alloy, temper and coating thickness. Because of the
coating density, it is not as easily dyed and not
typically used in cosmetic applications.
Wear resistance is the most frequent reason for specifying
Hardcoat Anodizing over Sulfuric Anodizing. Hardcoat
has excellent dielectric strength and is often used
to insulate assembly components. Corrosion resistance
is a third reason for using Hardcoat. At normal film
thickness of 0.002", the coating offers corrosion
protection superior to that of other anodic coatings,
especially when it is sealed.
What is “RoHS”?
“RoHS” stands for “Restriction
of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical
and electronic equipment”. It generally refers
to Directive 2002/95/EC that entered into force on
27 January 2003. Article 4 of the RoHS Directive,
hereinafter called “the Directive”, says
that “member states shall ensure that, from
1 July 2006, new electrical and electronic equipment
put on the market does not contain lead, mercury,
cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls
(PBB) or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)”.
What is anodizing?
A coating of aluminum oxide is grown from the aluminum
by passing an electrical current through an acid electrolyte
bath in which the aluminum is immersed. The coating
thickness and surface characteristics are tightly
controlled to meet end product specifications.
What is the purpose of anodizing?
The purpose of anodizing is to form a layer of aluminum
oxide that will protect the aluminum beneath it. The
aluminum oxide layer has much higher corrosion and
abrasion resistance than aluminum. There are some
types of anodizing that produce a porous oxide layer
that can be colored with organic dyes or metallic
pigments giving the aluminum a decorative and protective
What are some uses of anodized aluminum?
Because anodizing is such a versatile process there
are thousands of different applications. Just to name
a few, these include:
- Architectural products like windows and doors
- Food preparation equipment
- Sporting goods
Can any material be anodized?
Most anodizing is done on aluminum although anodizing
on Titanium is growing.
Why do people plate a part?
Plating can be used as a base for painting and to
improve corrosion or wear resistance. It is also used
as a decorative finish on many products including
automotive parts, hand tools, plumbing fixtures and
a variety of other applications.
What is the difference between Electroless
and Bright Electrolytic Nickel?
While both processes are depositing a nickel composite
on the substrate, Electroless nickel uses a chemical
catalyst to facilitate the plating reaction as opposed
to the Electrical current used in the Bright Nickel
plating process. There are noticeable differences
in appearance. Part configuration, design application
and function are considerations when deciding on which
process is recommended.
Why do you mechanically finish a part?
There are several reasons and ways to mechanically
finish a part. Abrasive blasting, Shot blasting, Vibratory
and Tumble Deburring, Harperizing/Centrifugal Finishing,
Sanding, Buffing and Polishing are just a few types
of mechanical finishing. As with the number of options
for mechanically finishing a part, there are a variety
of reasons to utilize this technology. Some of the
- De-scaling and removing heat treat scale
- Eliminating burrs on the surface of parts
- Rounding edges for safe handling
- Preparing part parts for plating
- Texturing parts for adhesion or functionality
- Improving the cosmetic appearance of the parts
What is copper plating?
Copper plating is the process of coating of a substance with copper by an electrolytic process, to minimize corrosion. There are three basic types of processes: Acid, Alkaline Non-Cyanide, and Cyanide.
What types of things do you copper plate?
- Pre-plating or undercoating metals
- Wire and grounding rods
- Printed circuit boards
- Decorative coating for rivets, buttons, lighting, plumbing fixtures, etc.
What is electroless nickel plating?
Electroless nickel plating is a coating of nickel and a various percentage of phosphorus.
How does electroless nickel work?
Electroless Nickel does not require anodes or outside power source; Chemical reactions on the surface of the part being plating cause deposition of the nickel alloy. This occurs on all wetted surfaces which in turn produces a uniform thickness.
What are the benefits of electroless nickel?
- Corrosion Protection
- Excellent Adhesion
- Uniform deposit regardless of work piece geometry
What are advantages of electroless nickel versus electrolytic nickel?
- Uniformity of thickness
- Better corrosion protection
- Superior adhesion
- Improved lubricity